We’re losing the war with obesity – especially women and children

We may not be heading out to one of the many fast food restaurants as much as we used to, but our obesity rate is still rising. The battle of the bulge is still a losing one, according to several new reports released this November.

Obesity and snoring

Coupled with this fact science is showing that there is a direct link between disturbed sleep and weight gain in many individuals and snoring, sleep apnoea, and restless leg syndrome play a big part in these disturbed nights.

Very simply, having less than a full night’s rest could provoke hormonal changes in your body that are linked to obesity. Getting fewer than six hours of sleep a night is directly linked with increases in the hunger-stimulating hormone ghrelin, decreases in insulin sensitivity which is a risk factor for diabetes, and decreases in the hormone leptin which is key for energy balance and food intake. The result is often late night snacking.

Results show that if someone stops snoring and has a better night’s sleep they not only feel more refreshed the next day but have a lower appetite.

The first report found that adult obesity rates have risen in the past three years, after an earlier period of relative stability. Furthermore, women have definitively become the heavier gender, with a 38% obesity rate versus 34% for men. About the only saving grace is that rates of teenage obesity have remained level, at 17% but this is still at a dangerous high pre-adulthood.

Figures are based on a survey of 5,000 people and required the participants, to undergo physical examinations. It allowed the researchers to accurately calculate the subjects’ obesity rate, as judged by their Body Mass Index.

The 2014-15 report produced for English Primary school children however is far more alarming showing one in ten children to be obese at the start of primary school in England last year, rising to one in five at end of that time.

The figures come from the government’s National Child Measurement Programme for England, and as standard procedure, all children at English primary schools are weighed in Reception and at the end of Year 6.

Although figures for Reception children have fallen slightly, the figures for obesity in Year 6 are on the rise. In addition it was found that children living in the most deprived areas were twice as likely to be obese as children in affluent areas. Campaigners said the figures should act as a wake-up call.

By measuring children’s weight and height and calculating their BMI (body mass index) they can be put into one of four categories: underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese.

Among children aged four and five in Reception year, 9.1% were classified as obese but in Year 6, 19.1% of children were obese – a big increase on the figures from eight years ago.

While one in four or five children was overweight or obese in Reception, one in three was either overweight or obese in Year 6.

The London boroughs of Southwark, Newham, Lambeth and Tower Hamlets topped the table for obesity among children aged 10 to 11 and the figures showed 28% of Year 6 pupils in Southwark were classed as obese and 44% were either obese or overweight. Wolverhampton had the largest number of obese 10 and 11-year-olds outside London and Waverley in Surrey had the smallest number of obese pupils – 5% in Reception and 9% in Year 6.

Alison Cox, Cancer Research UK’s director of cancer prevention, said the numbers were alarming.

“Overweight children are more likely to become overweight adults, and being overweight could cause 10 types of cancer. There’s an urgent need for the government to tackle obesity, starting with junk food marketing.”

Simon Gillespie, chief executive of the British Heart Foundation, said: “We now have more children than ever before leaving primary school overweight or obese and this is simply unacceptable.”

Lifestyles must change for adults to set the example; diets must improve, less undisturbed sleep is vital, and much of this is in our control. Eat healthier, drink less, exercise more and do things immediately like stopping snoring.

John Redfern


Snoring mothers-to-be are linked to low birth weight babies

The British Press have covered this subject extensively this week based on the results of a new research study that has just been completed in the United States. The research was published in the journal ‘Sleep’.

Snoring can be more than just an annoyance to others who are trying to sleep in the same room. For pregnant women, snoring could indicate certain higher risks. Experts say that snoring may be a sign of breathing problems that could deprive an unborn baby of oxygen.

Snoring is often a key sign of obstructive sleep apnoea, which results in the airway becoming partially blocked, said the researchers, whose findings appear in the journal Sleep. This can reduce blood oxygen levels during the night and is associated with serious health problems, including high blood pressure and heart attacks. The experts stress sleep apnoea can of course be easily treated.

The study found that chronic snorers, who snored both before and during pregnancy, were two thirds more likely to have a baby whose weight was in the bottom 10%.

Newborn baby girl sleeping

They were also more than twice as likely to need an elective Caesarean delivery, or C-section, compared with non-snorers.

Dr Louise O’Brien, from the University of Michigan’s Sleep Disorders Centre, said: “There has been great interest in the implications of snoring during pregnancy and how it affects maternal health but there is little data on how it may impact the health of the baby.

“We’ve found that chronic snoring is associated with both smaller babies and C-sections, even after we accounted for other risk factors. This suggests that we have a window of opportunity to screen pregnant women for breathing problems during sleep that may put them at risk of poor delivery outcomes.”

Previous research has already shown that women who start to snore during pregnancy are at risk from high blood pressure and the potentially dangerous pregnancy condition pre-eclampsia.

More than a third of the 1,673 pregnant women recruited for the new US study reported habitual snoring. They were also more than twice as likely to need an elective Caesarean delivery, or C-section, compared with non-snorers.

Scientists found that women who snored in their sleep three or more nights per week had a higher risk of poor delivery outcomes, including smaller babies and Caesarean births.

The very worst cases of sleep apnoea can be treated with CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure), which involves wearing a mask attached to a machine during sleep, which pumps oxygen to keep the airways open. Most other forms of sleep apnoea can be treated with the wearing of a simple snoring mouthpiece, similar to a gumshield that is worn for sports.

Dr O’Brien added: “If we can identify risks during pregnancy that can be treated, such as obstructive sleep apnoea, we can reduce the incidence of small babies, C-sections and possibly NICU (neo-natal intensive care unit) admission that not only improve long-term health benefits for the newly born but also help keep costs down.”

By John Redfern


Sleep disorders vary regionally – and so does support and diagnosis

Recent research carried out by the British Lung Foundation, in conjunction with both Guys and St Thomas’ Hospital in London, has highlighted that the provision of services to diagnose obstructive sleep apnoea, or OSA, varies a great deal across the UK, and it doesn’t match the worst areas for the problem.

OSA is linked to serious ill health, and the figures for the problem have continued to rise steeply across the last few years. This is partly due to the higher numbers of the population reaching middle age, at which time OSA becomes much more prevalent, and also because of certain lifestyle factors. Increased weight is a major contributory factor in the problem, due to our vastly changed pattern of eating and drinking across the last decade.

The population’s average age and girth has increased, both of which are risk factors for obstructive sleep apnoea. These increases are forecast to continue.

Sleep Apnoea infographic

Disturbed unsatisfactory sleep

OSA is a condition that disrupts breathing during sleep, usually as a result of the muscles and soft tissues in the throat relaxing and collapsing to block the airway. This usually lasts for 10 or more seconds. It affects people of all ages, including up to 4% of middle-aged men, 2% of middle-aged women and 20% of those aged over 70. However, it is estimated that around 80% of cases remain undiagnosed. In real terms we estimate about four million people in the UK to be sufferers.

Although it’s relatively easy to treat OSA, when it is left undiagnosed and untreated, it has been closely linked with a range of serious health concerns including stroke, heart disease, depression, diabetes, and high blood pressure. More recently, Alzheimer’s disease, glaucoma, and certain forms of cancer have also been related to it. OSA can also significantly affect one’s quality of life and ability to work, as well as increasing the chances of road accidents due to fatigue.

Regional differences

Wales, large parts of East Anglia, East Yorkshire, Lincolnshire and the North-East were found to be areas with the highest predicted rates of OSA. Larger urban areas in England and Scotland and the counties to the west of London were amongst the areas with the lowest predicted prevalence.

This pattern contrasted considerably with the availability of local sleep services for diagnosing and treating the condition, with large urban areas being better served despite the lower risk of OSA, and parts of mid-Wales, the North-West and East Anglia having much lower numbers of identified sleep centres, of which there are 289 in total, each one being required to serve an average of 1.25 million people.

Diagnosis of OSA

Professor Adrian Williams, Medical Advisor at the British Lung Foundation, Professor of Sleep Medicine at Guys and St Thomas’ Hospital, and co-author of the study says in a press statement: “Too often, a lack of awareness leads to the symptoms of OSA being not recognised or dismissed simply as an irritation for anyone who shares a room with someone affected. However, OSA can have a severe impact on quality of life and is associated with a range of serious health problems including heart disease, stroke, diabetes and depression.

“In most cases, OSA is easily treatable in a way that can successfully minimise the associated risks.

Self-diagnosis is therefore often a key requirement for OSA, and fortunately, by using easily accessible NHS approved products, such as an oral appliance, or mouthpiece which keeps open the airway whilst sleeping, the majority of serious cases can be prevented and better health attained.

By John Redfern


Snoring can cause Women to put on weight

Lack of sleep affects food choices and if you don’t sleep well it can cause you to choose more high-calorie foods. So, not only does being overweight cause you to snore, it would appear that snoring causes you to gain weight too.

It’s obviously normal for a poor night’s sleep to affect you the next day and make you feel tired; if it’s a constant problem then it could have some wide-ranging effects on your health.

Several studies have suggested that a lack of sleep can increase the chance of weight gain and obesity. It may be that a lack of sleep affects hormones that help control our appetite, that people eat more calories to make up for the tiring effects of lost sleep, or that people who stay up late tend to sleep less overall and eat more calories during their extended waking hours.

Snoring and Weight gain

However, these are mostly theories, as few good-quality studies have explored the link between sleep, eating, and weight gain. To help fill this gap in what we know, researchers recruited 225 healthy, non-obese people (aged 22 to 50 years old) to live in a sleep laboratory for 12 to 18 days.

They randomly selected participants to have five nights of either:
Restricted sleep, with four hours in bed, from 4 a.m. to 8 a.m., or
Unrestricted sleep, with 10 hours in bed, from 10 p.m. to 8 a.m.

During the day, people had regular meals and could also eat at other times, as food was always available in the kitchen. What food they ate and their weight were closely monitored, so the researchers could compare the two groups to see whether restricted sleep increased the chance of weight gain.

What did we learn?
People who had restricted sleep consumed more calories than those who had unrestricted sleep.
All of the extra calories – around 550 per day on average – were from food consumed between 10 p.m. and 4 a.m.
When eating late at night, people also got more of their calories from higher fat foods than at other times of the day.
On average, people with restricted sleep gained nearly a kilo of weight, while those with unrestricted sleep gained only one-tenth of a kilogram.

How reliable is the research?
This was a good-quality study. However, it’s worth noting it only included people who were healthy, fairly young, and not obese. So it’s not clear whether these findings will definitely apply to other groups of people. Also, the participants weren’t able to exercise during the study and might not have had access to all the foods they usually ate. These things might have had an effect on the findings.

What does this mean for me?
It provides good evidence that restricted sleep can increase how many calories you eat and leads to weight gain, at least in the short term. If you tend to stay up late and/or get little sleep, it may be especially pertinent to you as after 10 p.m. was when people typically got their extra calories, rather than during the day.

By John Redfern


Snoring, sleep apnoea, and sleep loss in women

Snoring, and sleep apnoea in particular, were both generally considered to be conditions predominantly affecting men but we now know this not to be the case, with the ration of men to women estimated at approximately 2:1. Since sleep apnoea is mainly a problem that is self-reported , men were more likely to seek help for this and heavy snoring, even if prompted to do so by their partner.

Approximately 50% of women snorers are believed not to report their symptoms to their GP, mostly due to being embarrassed. Some studies show that as many as 90% of more severe cases go undiagnosed in women, and women have a tendency not to report apnoea events, choking or restless sleep, whereas most men did report these matters.

Treatment however can be both simple and inexpensive and it can prevent major health problems in later life. Sufferers are often put off by the thought that the treatment most used historically was CPAP, where air is forced via a mask into the lungs throughout the whole night. More recent thinking is to recommend the use of an oral appliance for mild and moderate cases of sleep apnoea.

Sleep apnea in womenComparison showing Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP and an Oral Appliance (MAD)

The contrast is shown in the photography above where one patient is using a mask

for CPAP and the other an oral appliance – just distinguishable in the inset, with the result that this method is now much more appealing to those who suffer – both men and women. This treatment, although not quite so effective, works very well.

Snoring often results in a disturbed night and it is very common to hear a comment such as – “I barely slept last night. I just couldn’t get comfortable” – or – “I tried to fall asleep, but my mind kept racing.”

Sleep, and the lack of it, is a common talking point, and disturbed sleep generally is much more common in women than men. A woman’s experience of sleep loss is different and sometimes feminine factors are involved that may cause and maintain sleep difficulties. However, focusing on quality sleep is important to help prevent many aspects of both physical and mental health.

Disruption of sleep leads not only to daytime sleepiness, but memory lapses, weight gain, headaches, irritability and poor work performance overall. It can also contribute to psychological disorders such as depression and for the more severe cases, there’s an increased risk of high blood pressure, premature heart disease and stroke.

It’s not an area to neglect.

The best solution is an approach on several fronts including exercise, reduced alcohol consumption, healthy eating and treatment for the sleep apnoea or heavy snoring which will stop the snoring immediately whilst other things take time.

There are several treatment solutions including surgery, CPAP (Continuous Positive Airways Pressure) a full-face mask which works by stopping the airways from collapsing, or a mandibular advancement device, like a sports mouth-guard, that holds the lower jaw slightly forward, making more space to breathe.

Many women now opt for the mouthpiece. It’s easy to wear, quite comfortable, non-claustrophobic unlike the mask, and doesn’t create dryness of the mouth, which CPAP has a tendency to do. Mouthpieces are easily acquired as they are non-prescription, but some are NHS Approved, which is preferable, and they will bring you immediate results.

SleepPro now have a special product in their range dedicated to women only – the only oral appliance technology company to do so.

By John Redfern


Massive increases recorded in the number of women who snore

Women in particular do not like to think they snore – there’s a stigma attached to it – yet they now account for 40 per cent of snorers,” says Dr Martin Allen, who is a consultant physician at the University Hospital of North Staffordshire, and a spokesperson for the British Lung Foundation.

Snoring damages health

Previously considered by many to be a predominantly male domain, it is now women who account for almost half of the snoring problem in the UK. There is no denying that it is predominantly their changed lifestyle that has caused the problem, and again there is massive proof to support this. Latest figures show that women are seeking to resolve it however, and are dealing with it in a number of ways, dependent upon the problem’s severity.

Clinics are now advising 10 times more women snorers than 2 years ago – and the problem is conclusively a result of drinking, smoking, and weight gain. As well as the health problems previously mentioned, fatigue and irritability are also often a major result of having that disturbed night’s rest.

As we are all aware, stopping smoking is difficult, even in Stoptober, drinking tends to be an important part of all our social lives, and losing those extra pounds is harder work still, which can often necessitate lots of time and expense at the Gym in the early morning or after a busy day – which is not always convenient.

The majority of women snorers can stop snoring immediately through the use of a simple oral appliance that has previously been targeted at men alone; it’s fast, unobtrusive, and inexpensive. It’s a simple mouthpiece that helps to keep the airway open at night when asleep. No prescription is required and some products in the UK already have NHS Approval Status having been tried and tested for many years. It’s both fast and effective and it can stop your snoring whilst you’re working hard correcting those other lifestyle issues.

SleepPro are the leading British company in this field and their oral appliances are recommended by Clinics, Doctors, and Dentists throughout the world. As well as having full NHS Approval they have a recorded 98% success rate for product effectiveness, which at the end of the day is what counts most.

To meet this new and rising demand from women they have now taken it further and are the first to produce a specially produced mouthpiece for women that has now become available land was launched just this week.

Look for new SleepPro Woman – it’s pink, not the traditional male blue, and in the early sales period, there’s a pound donation from every sale going to support the vital research carried out by the Breast Cancer Campaign – appropriately named #wearitpink.

By John Redfern


Snoring tops the new “Hate List’ for bedroom annoyances

We all need a good night’s sleep regularly but in a recent nationwide survey in the United Kingdom, snoring topped the list of our most hated bedroom annoyances by a country mile and came top of the list with 54% in the poll taken in this multi-response survey.

Maybe it’s not a lot to ask from a loved one, but sound, restful sleep is incredibly important to our lives in so many ways, and we seemingly fail to make it possible for each other. Millions of people in Britain are losing vital hours of good sleep because their partner is disturbing their sleep.

To put it in perspective, an adult needs to get at least 8 hours restful and undisturbed sleep each night for their mind and their body to perform at their best the next day. This is not happening.

A whopping 74% claim that they lose at least one hour’s sleep per night and that’s the same as going one night each week without going to bed at all.

Snoring causes arguments

One fact is new – and that is that we are owning up to snoring at last, whereas we either used to dismiss it altogether or simply regard it as a joke. The same survey showed that 44% of us owned up to snoring.

There are other reasons too for these disturbed nights, as well as snoring, but this was by far the leading ‘annoyance’ with couples, and many of these bad habits seem to be turning our bedrooms into battlefields.

Leading the way in the table of hates and dislikes were these:

Snoring 54%

Hogging the duvet 46%

Sleeping naked 41%

Restless fidgeting 40%

Stealing partner’s space 36%

Passing wind 34%

Bad Breath 27%

Sweating 26%

Allowing pets into bed 17%

Sleep Talking 17%

Most of these problems can of course be solved – including snoring.

Bedtime however was considered important, and more than half of the couples that were interviewed stated that they enjoyed quality time in bed with their partner, with pillow talk playing an important role for some 59%, particularly those with children. It gave them time to discuss family matters, plans, future holidays, and of course the dreaded subject of in-laws.

So despite the warfare, it’s a good opportunity for couples to bond and take key decisions together as long as the overall conditions are right for a good night’s sleep.

We should maybe focus on the annoyances and eliminate them – after all it’s so easy to do that, and the overall results could be so beneficial to both marital life and future health.


#Stoptober • Is Smoking Ruining Your Sleep?

#stoptober
The successful Stoptober campaign is under way yet again and as well as assisting you to stop smoking, it can help you in other ways – such as stopping snoring. Snoring happens for lots of different reasons and sleep disorders of this type can be caused by genetics, body weight, or simply age. However we know that smoking can make you snore.
Although smoking can make you snore there are several ways it can do this. The first and second ways are quite obvious. Firstly it can dry out your throat very quickly which isn’t a major cause of snoring, but it can contribute to it. The second way smoking can cause snoring is by direct irritation. When you smoke, the smoke itself irritates your mouth and throat including the mucus membranes and the bronchial tubes. That may not sound like much, but it is.
Because your airway is quite small to begin with, it takes very little for it to be constricted enough for you to start to notice, and all of the irritation that is caused by cigarette smoke leads to inflammation. In such a small space inflammation is not a good thing and it’s enough to constrict your airway and cause you to snore – sometimes very heavily.
However there is actually a third way in which smoking is related to snoring. For some people, smoking causes them to actually create more mucus and if you’re producing too much mucus it can take up space in your airway and make you snore. There is no way to get rid of it completely but reducing your milk intake and increasing the amount of water you drink will help.
Solutions
Even ex-smokers are more likely to snore than someone who has never smoked. However, just because there isn’t an easy solution to the problem that doesn’t mean that the symptoms cannot be treated.
Obviously you can stop smoking. Otherwise, your best bet is probably a simple mouthpiece that you wear at night when sleeping. The mouthpiece is the best way to open up space through the airway and this will prevent you from snoring. It’s comfortable fast, and inexpensive – and can help stop or restrict other associated problems with your health – as well as quite often saving relationships.

Smoking leads to snoring

Smoking affects your sleep in several ways – all to do with the active ingredient, nicotine.

  • Depending on your level of use and dependence, your desire for additional nicotine during your sleep may cause you to awaken and this may lead to insomnia.
  • Nicotine itself is a stimulant and the use of it too close to bedtime may also make it difficult for you to fall asleep.
  • Smoking also is associated with a disruption of the basic structure of your sleep – called the sleep architecture – and this comprises a number of very important stages. Research shows that smokers take slightly longer to fall asleep, sleep less, and have less deep sleep.

For those who quit smoking, these differences in sleep architecture do not persist. So if you smoke and you also have disrupted sleep, this may be yet another very important reason why you should quit.

Stop Now….before it’s too late.

By John Redfern

 

 


SleepPro supports the British Lung Foundation

SleepPro supports the British Lung Foundation

The British Lung Foundation has launched a new online action that enables people to email their local parliamentarian, urging them to take action in parliaments and governments across the UK to draw attention to the problems presented by heavy snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea.

Most people will snore at one time or another but the incidence of heavy snoring is increasing rapidly, mostly due to lifestyle factors, and snoring is now thought to regularly affect the lives of 40% of men in the UK, and 25% of women, which if correct, adds up to almost 20 million people.

In addition, up to 4 per cent of middle-aged men and 2 per cent of middle-aged women in the UK have obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA. With awareness of OSA low among the general public and even healthcare professionals, and up to 80 per cent of people with OSA remaining undiagnosed (and some studies suggest this could be even higher), there is a real need to take action on OSA – a known killer.

sleep cycle

Health boards are already under pressure to cut costs and improve standards by centralising services, but the British Lung Foundation says solutions can be found to provide better access for rural patients who are the ones to suffer most from lack of treatment or even diagnosis – and often with inevitable fatal results.

Earlier this year, the BLF launched a ten-point charter calling on governments and decision makers across the UK to take action to ensure that people affected by OSA are diagnosed earlier, and that they and their families get the treatment and support they need.

In a very short time this will save thousands of lives – and a great deal of money in the NHS budgets.

Dr Penny Woods, Chief Executive, British Lung Foundation said:

Obstructive sleep apnoea is a treatable condition, but unfortunately awareness of it is not always what it should be. As a consequence too many people remain undiagnosed and untreated. Getting parliamentarians across the UK to engage with OSA as an issue is a great way to ensure the UK’s various governments and decision makers give OSA the attention it deserves.”

Caroline Stevens, Interim Chief Operating Officer at the BLF, said:

“The BLF’s OSA charter reflects the need for earlier diagnosis, better access to treatment and increased awareness – both amongst the wider public and medical community. The impact of OSA on health and lifestyle means these recommendations not only have the potential to save lives, but to make considerable savings to the NHS at a time of great financial pressure”.

Please help everyone with this problem by taking action now.

To write to your MP, MSP, AM or MLA by visiting this page:

www.blf.org.uk/osa-action

By John Redfern


Snorers who lie-in are TWICE as likely to develop bowel cancer

Snorers who sleep more than nine hours a night are twice as likely to develop bowel cancer than snorers who get seven hours of sleep a night, according to new research conducted at Harvard in the USA.

According to the Harvard study, snoring isn’t just annoying it poses very serious risks to a person’s health.

The study showed a significant link between long periods of sleep and the development of colorectal cancer, especially among people who are overweight or who snore. As a result, it is believed that obstructive sleep apnoea, a form of snoring that causes interrupted breathing during sleep, could contribute to an increased risk of cancer. One of the effects of sleep apnoea is that you are likely to suffer from excess fatigue because of disrupted sleep and this makes sufferers prone to sleeping longer to try to catch up.

The researchers asked participants to estimate their total hours of sleep in a 24-hour period and asked them if they snore.

A statement from the Department of Medicine at Harvard Medical School gave the following information:

‘Our current study adds to the very limited literature regarding the relationship between sleep duration, sleep quality and colorectal cancer risk. The novel observation of increased risk among regular snorers who sleep for long periods raises the possibility that sleep apnoea and its intermittent oxygen deprivation may contribute to cancer risk.’

Of 76,368 women and 30,121 men the researchers documented a total of 1,973 cases of colorectal cancer – almost 2 per cent of the total.

They broke the participants into subgroups which showed that men and women who were overweight, or who were regular snorers, and who reported sleeping nine hours or more per day, had a 1.4 to 2-fold increased risk of developing colorectal cancer compared to overweight people, or snorers, who got seven hours sleep a day.

The general recommendation is that most adults should get about seven to eight hours of sleep a night.

The authors suggest that the association between long sleep duration and colorectal cancer may be explained by obstructive sleep apnoea, which involves repetitive episodes of complete or partial upper airway obstruction during sleep.

The most common cause of obstructive sleep apnoea is excess body weight, and loud snoring is a common symptom of the condition.

The researchers strongly believe that sleep disruption caused by heavy snoring may reduce sleep quality and increase sleepiness, resulting in longer reported sleep durations. In addition to this, intermittent oxygen deprivation, similar to that which occurs in people with sleep apnoea, has been shown in animal models to promote significant tumour growth.

Other recent research has shown that people who sleep for less than six hours a night are at a significantly increased risk of stroke.

Researchers at the University of Alabama found that those in middle age who skimped on sleep were more likely to suffer stroke symptoms than those who got at least nine hours of shut-eye – even if they were a healthy weight and with no family history of stroke. Yet again, the scientists found that heavy snoring made the problem worse as it reduced the quality of people’s sleep.

The American Academy of Sleep Medicine reports that individual sleep needs vary. However, the general recommendation is that most adults should get about seven to eight hours of nightly sleep.

Relate this information to your own problem of snoring and take some immediate steps to reduce it – it’s ‘sound advice’.
By John Redfern