Sleep apnoea proved to cause major heart problems in women

The night-time breathing disturbance which is known as sleep apnoea can significantly boost a woman’s risk for heart problems, and even result in their death, but there was no similarly boosted effect for men, a new study finds.

close up woman having chest pain breast pain

The study wasn’t designed to prove cause and effect. However, it was found that women with moderate to severe sleep apnoea had more than a 30% higher risk of heart problems than women without sleep apnoea. The study found no significant link between sleep apnoea and any kind of heart problems in men although other studies have done.

The researchers also found that, compared to women without sleep apnoea, women with this dangerous disorder had higher blood levels of troponin, a chemical signal of early heart damage.

The findings suggest that older women may be at greater risk for sleep apnoea-related heart disease than men, and all the experts have agreed that the findings are a wake-up call to spot and treat sleep apnoea in women as early as possible.

Obstructive sleep apnoea is a common sleep disorder characterized by heavy snoring, airway blockage during sleep and daytime sleepiness, but today it can be easily treated without prolonged medical check ups, by simply using medically approved oral appliances. These are available from specialist companies that will supply you direct with no prescription needed.

While sleep apnoea is often thought of as a disease most common in men, these results highlight the importance of recognizing sleep apnoea symptoms in women, particularly in those who are post-menopause, in whom the incidence of sleep apnoea increases,” he said.

Medical experts advise that women who report symptoms of sleep apnoea that include snoring, gasping at night, bed partner’s observation of ‘stopping breathing,’ morning headaches, non-refreshing sleep or daytime sleepiness should immediately take steps to control and prevent this. They can do this by making use of an oral appliance or mouthpiece to wear at night – and preferably one that is medically approved and custom fits so is specially designed for the task.

Being overweight will increase the likelihood of sleep apnoea occurring, so some accompanying weight loss, and an avoidance of alcohol in the evening will assist greatly.

If sleep apnoea is allowed to develop, extremely serious cases may require CPAP treatment, using an overnight supply of oxygen through a facemask.

The link between sleep disordered breathing and stroke only came to light in the 1990s. Sleep apnoea is commonly found in individuals after experiencing a stroke. Between 1996 and 2010 over 20 different studies showed a clear association between stroke and SDB.

More recent findings uncovered that obstructive sleep apnoea is found within 50% of stroke sufferers. Furthermore, having obstructive sleep apnoea will definitely increase the risk of stroke, dependent on other associated factors, including smoking, obesity and diabetes.

Dr. Sean Pinney is the Director of Advanced Heart Failure and Cardiac Transplant Program at the Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York City. He believes that these new findings should “help us more fully understand the mechanisms underlying heart failure.” The fact that women’s hearts seem more affected by sleep apnoea is “very compelling,” Pinney added.

The study was published this month in the journal Circulation. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute supported the research, along with a further grant from the American Heart Association.

John Redfern


Snoring and sleep apnoea proved to be a cause of diabetes

A newly published research study that has concluded that Seniors with night-time breathing issues like snoring or sleep apnoea often have high blood sugar, and they may be almost twice as likely as sound sleepers to develop type 2 diabetes.

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This extensive and highly accurate study produced findings from some 6,000 U.S. adults who were followed for up to 10 years. The highly conclusive results suggest that doctors may now want to monitor blood sugar in older patients with sleep-disordered breathing much more closely, according to the lead researchers involved at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Centre in Boston.

“Recent evidence suggests that diabetes patients have a higher prevalence of sleep disturbances than the general population,” lead author Linn Beate Strand stated. “However, less is known about whether symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes later, especially in older adults,”

Sleep apnoea involves frequent episodes during sleep when the airway closes and people stop breathing entirely. Often breathing resumes abruptly with a loud snort or choking sound, according to the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. These repeated breathing interruptions, which can occur up to 30 times per hour, have been linked to daytime sleepiness and increased risk of high blood pressure, heart attack, stroke, heart failure, irregular heartbeat, diabetes and incidences of sudden death.

Awareness of sleep apnoea all countries is at an all-time peak. Awareness is being raised regularly by both the public media and by social media. Potential sufferers, understandably, are becoming increasingly more concerned about the blockage of oxygen to the brain and other organs, and many more people are recognizing that they have the symptoms and are raising the subject with Sleep Centres or their doctors.

Many more have taken the highly sensible first step of equipping themselves with an oral appliance to treat the problem, as recommended by the NHS, who approve certain tested appliances and issue them to more severely affected patients. The mouthpiece is similar to a typical sports gum shield and is worn at night when sleeping. It usually has an immediate effect and snoring stops overnight in most cases and in the case of sleep apnoea, the more advanced bespoke versions will prevent the main danger involved, which is the regular deprivation of oxygen to the brain.

More and more people are suffering from the dangers caused by both snoring and sleep apnoea, and this is primarily because of lifestyle issues, but mostly due to excessive weight as this will narrow the throat as well as causing the muscles to weaken.

Most previous studies on sleep disorders and diabetes have focused on young or middle-aged adults, the researchers point out in the journal Diabetes Care, but, it is now apparent that sleep apnoea and snoring become more common with age, and needs earlier treatment.

The research found that people with sleep apnoea were nearly twice as likely as normal sleepers to develop diabetes, and that snorers were 27 per cent more likely. Those with daytime sleepiness were also about 50 per cent more likely than those without that symptom to develop diabetes. The more disturbed-breathing symptoms people had during their sleep, the greater was their risk of diabetes.

The findings suggest that improving sleep quality in adults may reduce their risk of developing diabetes or may even reduce the severity of diabetes in those who are already affected.

Getting good sleep is as important as nutrition and exercise to remain healthy during the aging process. However, previously, although any serious sleep disturbance such as snoring has been recognised to cause problems for nearly all aspects of health, it is often ignored when treating diabetes.

If you snore or have symptoms of sleep apnoea it’s important to take preventative measures now because if ignored, it may prove to be too late.

John Redfern

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Does your partner snore – and if so, why haven’t you told them?

How do you tell your better half that he or she has a problem with snoring without hurting their feelings? A snoring partner is a very delicate subject – but it’s vital that the conversation takes place. Snoring is not a joke.

A tired sleepless woman with the pillow over her head . Isolated over white.

It is a sensitive conversation, but you shouldn’t avoid bringing it up. After all, your partner’s snoring problem heavily affects your life too:

  • It disrupts your sleep pattern, which is devastating to your lifestyle.
  • It makes you tired, impairing your lifestyle or productivity at work.
  • You might experience irritability, loss of temper and frustration.
  • During the day your body might demand the rest that it was really supposed to get during the night so that, while you should be going about your daily responsibilities, you can only think of taking a nap.

Perhaps you doze off at work or, more dangerously, feel like falling asleep while driving? Leading world motoring organisations state that sleepy drivers cause a very high percentage of the most serious road accidents – a figure they put at almost a quarter. Many serious injuries and deaths result from this and they name snoring and sleep apnoea as the direct cause of it.

All of the above reasons are extremely important for you to lead a healthy and fulfilling life. However, keep in mind that next to your suffering, snoring can be dangerous for the snorer too, as the condition has recently been linked to diabetes, heart disease, dementia and even cancer.

For these reasons, if not for others, you should have the important “Snoring conversation” with your partner as soon as possible. While at it, consider the situation your snorer is in, why he or she is not seeking help and how they feel about their health and lifestyle.

Leading experts say that if your snorer has been ignoring the problem for a long time, confronting the issue might stir up an array of emotions that can progress in stages or may even be experienced at the same time:

Denial
Denial is the most common first reaction after hearing about the problem. Snoring comes with a certain kind of stigma and most snorers can’t believe that they snore, especially because they are not the ones to hear it at night. If your partner is in denial, the best thing to do is to record their snoring. You can do it in various ways but a cellphone is easiest, and numerous free online apps exist. Confronted with tangible evidence, most snorers accept that they have a problem and try to find a solution.

Embarrassment
As mentioned earlier, snoring comes with a social stigma and because of this it might be humiliating for people to think of themselves as snorers. Be patient and understanding to your partner, assure him or her that you realise they can’t help it. Confirm your strong feelings towards them. It will be good for them to know that their snoring does not affect the relationship that you share. Do your best to be supportive, sensitive and respect your partner’s feelings, and since snoring affects the lives of both of you, work closely together to find the solution.

Helplessness
Snoring is no longer a difficult condition to cure and people often do not realise that a visit to a doctor is not needed, as a simple mouthpiece, worn during sleep, can solve the problem completely – and immediately. All the major health authorities throughout the world now recommend the use of approved oral appliances to prevent snoring and even treat sleep apnoea.

It is estimated that snoring, or sleep disordered breathing affects as many as 40% of adults, and they and their partners suffer from regularly disturbed sleep and loss of valuable rest. The problem is not confined to men alone, although many more men than women snore. However, the role of the woman is important, as not only is she likely to take steps towards preventing her own snoring faster than a man, she is the one most likely to encourage her partner to take the appropriate action to help them protect their health.

A wide choice of oral appliances now exists; from simple, inexpensive starter appliances that come straight out of the box, that are ideal for lighter snorers, to medically approved custom-made mouthpieces that prevent the dangers of sleep apnoea, and may even replace the use of CPAP or other mask-assisted breathing systems for mild to moderate sufferers.

It’s important to take those first steps and have that all-important “Snoring’ Conversation” as it will safeguard your health, and of your partner, improve or even save your relationship, and it may even save their life. Remember that the obvious and easy choice of sleeping in separate rooms is an option – but it is certainly not a solution.

John Redfern


One in three people born in the UK in 2015 could get dementia

One in three people born in the UK this year will suffer from some form of dementia in their lifetime, the Alzheimer’s Research UK charity has warned.

Senior man in failing health and his worried middle-aged son. Focus on Senior man.

The figures, which have been released by the charity this week on World Alzheimer’s Day, suggest the condition will affect 27% of boys born in 2015 and a much higher figure for women with it affecting as many 37% of girls.

With no treatment to stop or slow dementia, the charity has warned of a “looming national health crisis” as the population ages, and is renewing its call for more urgent action to tackle the illness. The figures are based on current life expectancies and the risk of people developing dementia as they age.

More than 800,000 people in the country are already affected by the disease, which is caused by the destruction of brain cells – usually attributed to lack of oxygen in recent research – often due to heavy snoring and the even more dangerous sleep disorder, obstructive sleep apnoea – OSA.

Age is the biggest risk factor for dementia and rising life expectancies could increase the number of people living with the condition. Heart disease, diabetes, smoking and a lack of exercise are also linked to the condition and again often linked by research to snoring – the alarm bell for the development for these dangerous and life-threatening conditions.

The charity commissioned the Office of Health Economics to make the projections.

It predicted that:

  • 32% of people born in the UK in 2015 will get dementia in their lifetime
  • 27% of men would get the condition
  • 37% of women would be affected

Dr Matthew Norton, from Alzheimer’s Research UK, said: “These figures underline a stark reality – as people are living longer, more and more people will develop dementia in the future if action is not taken now to tackle the condition.

“It’s wonderful news that each generation is living longer than the last, but it’s important to ensure that people can enjoy these extra years in good health.

“Dementia is our greatest medical challenge and if we are to beat it, we must invest in research to find new treatments and preventions.”

Treating snoring has been proved recently to delay the onset of both Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia by between five and ten years, and is dependent on how early preventative steps are taken. This would reduce the total number of people suffering at any one time by approximately one-third and make a huge saving on NHS costs, as well as easing the difficult burden for family dependents that often do the home caring.

Thanks to research conducted at UCLA over the past 12 years, experts have known that the gasping during the night that characterizes obstructive sleep apnoea can damage the brain in ways that lead to high blood pressure, depression, memory loss and anxiety. It also can cause extreme daytime sleepiness, thanks to the constant night-time interruptions, and can lead to stroke, diabetes, and loss of testosterone and endocrine-related problems.

The damage to the brain stems in part from the reduction of oxygen to the body, as a result of the repeated breathing interruptions.

This can be stopped in most cases by the use of a simple oral appliance or mouthpiece – some of which are now approved and recommended by the NHS – and even given to patients. They are effective, work fast, are easy and comfortable to wear, and cost little – but save a lot.

John Redfern

 

 


Most people are now living much longer – but will you be one of them?

There are new worrying figures that expose England’s north-south health divide and they also show that it is getting worse. So who in England lives longest and where are they? More importantly perhaps – Why?

The life expectancy for people living in England has risen by 5.4 years since 1990, with the average person now expected to live until more than 80 years of age. But some areas do far better than others.

Map - Regions

A study carried out by Public Health England (PHE) found life expectancy rose from 75.9 years to 81.3 years between 1990 and 2013. The gains were greater for men than women, with men expected to live an extra 6.4 years compared to 25 years ago but women still generally live longer, with the figures showing an average life expectancy for women of 83.2 years compared to 79.5 years for men.

There are still vast inequalities between rich and poor areas. While the wealthiest 20 %of men in the East of England can expect to live to 83.1 years, and women 86.4, the most deprived 20 %of men in the North West have an average life expectancy of just 74.9, with women at 79.5 years.

The increase has been ascribed to a slowdown in the number of deaths from cardiovascular disease, stroke and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease over the last two decades, but while life expectancy has grown for the general population, large inequalities still remain for people living in more deprived areas.

The study found that despite having the same health and social care system as the rest of the country, regions such as the North East and North West are ranked among the worst performing regions for life expectancy.

The study, which was published in The Lancet, shows that obesity, poor diet and smoking are the biggest risks for premature death among people in England. If you snore – it could be a sign of things to come unless you change things and do something about it quickly.

Public Health England spokesman, Professor John Newton described the wide-ranging causes of inequality as “deep-rooted and persistent and lie largely outside the he healthcare system”. “Preventatives services which already exist do help,” he added.

The new figures, published in The Lancet, show that if the healthiest region of England, the south-east, were a country it would top a league of 22 industrialised nations for its health outcomes. But if the North West were a country, it would be in the bottom five.

Although the study only looked at England, older data for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland also places them among the worst performing countries. England has achieved significant gains in life expectancy, which has increased by 5.4 years between 1990 and 2013 – mostly driven by declines in deaths from heart disease and some cancers. The gains made by the country as a whole are greater than for most other wealthy countries.

But while we are living longer, there has been barely any decline in rates of illness and disability. The highest rates of the biggest killers – including heart disease and lung cancer – are found in the most deprived areas – driven by higher rates of common risk factors such as smoking and unhealthy drinking.

Across the board, the researchers estimate, 40 per cent of ill health in England is caused by preventable risk factors. Unhealthy diets and obesity are the biggest causes of illness – accounting for about a fifth. Smoking causes 10.8 per cent of disease, high blood pressure 7.8 per cent and alcohol and drug use 5.8 per cent.

If you snore you need to take the first step and prevent these illnesses from developing – or suffer the inevitable consequences.

John Redfern


Snoring, disturbed sleep, and the effect on your everyday health

If you’ve ever been woken by your partner’s deafening snoring tones or struggled to slink into slumber because of the noise coming from your bedside partner, then you’re not alone!

Flu. Closeup image of frustrated sick woman with red nose lying in bed in thick scarf holding tissue by her nose and touching her head

Snoring is one of the most common partner disturbances when it comes to sleep and what starts off as a niggle can soon become very annoying especially when you’re trying your best to get off to the land of nod.

I mentioned in last week’s article the latest newspaper report about the rise of the snoring room for the wealthy property buyer – basically a separate bedroom to banish your snoring partner to – but it’s not new. People have been sleeping apart due to someone snoring for a very long time.

However, disrupted sleep can leave many couples short tempered with each other leading to rows and squabbles, and even to divorce in extreme cases. So if snoring is a real issue then a snoring room, or what us ordinary folk call a separate bedroom, can be no bad thing!

Over recent years there’s been lots of research into how many couples now sleep apart and how beneficial – or not beneficial – it is for your sleep.  And there is a large number of us who do sleep in separate bedrooms – for many reasons whether that’s snoring, health or just personal space.

Women suffer more than men do. A large research study found that 31% of women, and 19% of men, are disturbed by snoring, with many saying that they think their sleep would improve quite significantly if their partner didn’t snore. Yet in the same research, 78% did report they shared a bed.

It’s well known that severe cases of snoring, and particularly sleep apnoea, have made a very detrimental contribution to serious health problems such as diabetes, heart attack, stroke, and even cancer.

Snoring and disturbed sleep can affect you much more than just making you tired and irritable, and falling asleep or taking daytime naps. Professor Francesco Cappuccio and his team at The University of Warwick have explored what daily napping says about our health. The team studied the daytime napping habits of more than 16,000 men and women in the UK and found daily napping, of both under and more than one hour — to be a warning sign of underlying health risk — particularly respiratory problems.

The team believes that the risks associated with those prolonged or extra hours asleep may extend beyond heart conditions to represent warning signs of depression, infection, inflammatory conditions and, in some, the early stages of cancer.

“It doesn’t mean that longer sleep causes these diseases,” says Cappuccio. Instead, the fatigue from sleep disturbed by snoring that is keeping people in bed excessively is a symptom of something going wrong. “It’s a consequence of the disease, not the cause,” he says.

Cutting out snoring and sleeping better is the key to good health for all of us.

However it appears that snoring and disturbed sleep can affect you much more than just making you tired and irritable – it affects simple everyday health. We now have new medical findings that it affects our health in significant, but lesser ways – illnesses that are very common and that we accept as part of everyday life.

Scientists now say they have found proof that failing to get enough sleep can greatly increase your risk of catching a cold. The US researchers found that people who sleep 6 hours a night or less are at least 4 times more likely to catch a cold when exposed to the virus, compared to those who sleep for more than 7 hours.

Writing in the journal, Sleep, the team members say their findings prove just how vital it is to have undisturbed regular sleep to stay healthy.

It’s not rocket science so don’t ignore this sound advice – Stop Snoring now.

John Redfern


Snoring is much more of a problem in some parts of the UK than others

A new nationwide poll conducted with home-owning couples last month has revealed some major regional differences in how partners deal with the issue of snoring, and how they resolve it as a problem. Everyone sleeps in a slightly different way, and this can be due to a very wide range of factors including their different habits when they turn in for the night. Some of the more interesting regional results are as follows.

Flags of the United Kingdom of Great Britain - England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Union Flag.

The highest percentage of snoring that causes family rifts is in Northern Ireland and is at over 60%, closely followed by the North West and North East of England, with Wales following at 44%, whilst other areas rank lower.

The average amount of sleep an adult gets in the UK is 7 hours and 10 minutes, but the people who live in the hustle and bustle of London get the least sleep for one reason or another, which may not come as a huge surprise. They only get 6 hours 25 minutes sleep per night and that is exactly an hour less than someone who lives in the North East. It may not seem much but across a week it’s a difference of a complete night’s sleep.

People from Northern Ireland get 7 hours 8 minutes sleep on average but say that are very unhappy about it, Nearly two-thirds would like more. One of the biggest disruptions to their night is snoring, and well over 60% confessed to having major arguments about this – the highest figure of any region in the United Kingdom.

Although people in the North East sleep longer than those in any other region, only 41% are happy about that amount and feel that they don’t get enough sleep. They are obviously hardy as even though it’s colder than many parts of the country they are the ones most likely to sleep naked.

In contrast, those in Northern Ireland are most likely to sleep wearing pyjamas, whereas Londoners tend to prefer some form of underwear as their night-time attire of choice.

These two areas differ greatly in other ways too. Working and living in a big city such as London can often leave you a bit grubby by the time that bedtime rolls around, and this may be why Londoners are the ‘cleanest sleepers’ in the UK, with 65% washing, bathing or showering every evening before they hit the sack. This is quite different to Northern Ireland, as only 23% admit to never washing before going to bed, presumably because they favour the morning bath or shower.

Maybe it’s something in the water but when it comes to night time intimacy, Yorkshire and Humberside leads the way. Over 15% confessed to being intimate with their partner before they go to sleep with other areas having lower figures. The other end of the scale reveals figures of less than 7% in Scotland and an even lower 5% in Northern Ireland.

Other activities vary greatly too. Those in the South East prefer to read before turning the light out with the highest figure of over 42% for this. Reading and watching television are by far the most popular pre-sleep activities and both have a 37% average, but in the East Midlands less than 24% said that they watch TV before turning in.

The data recorded even measured how often people hit the snooze button on their alarm with Londoners doing it most at a figure that is 47% higher than anywhere else. East Anglians proved to be the sprightliest in the morning and they hit the snooze button far less than anyone else.

The biggest disturbances to sleep came from snoring – often a serious problem. Sleeping in the same bed as your partner however may be going out of fashion with new research suggesting that now one in six British couples choose to sleep in separate bedrooms. The emergence of ‘his and her’ rooms appears to be growing because of the increase in snoring and many people are quite happy sleeping in their own separate room. Dubbed the ‘second master suite’ or the ‘snoring room’, the extra bedroom has now started to become a common feature in many houses.

Stephen Lindsay, head of Savills estate agency in London, told the Sunday Times that the idea of separate rooms appealed greatly to many clients, particularly those from abroad. ‘They are amused by the English humour of the snoring room, but also attracted to the flexibility it allows’. He added: ‘Often called a second master or guest suite, developers are increasingly adding snoring rooms to new properties to meet this buyer appetite.’

Of course, it would be much cheaper for them to stop snoring by using a simple oral appliance, and definitely much friendlier and more sociable.

John Redfern


Snoring can shorten your lifespan – and many pension providers will pay you extra if you are a known sufferer with sleep apnoea

Lots of people snore. Maybe you do. Perhaps your spouse lies hopelessly awake at night praying some miracle will just shut you up for a second. Sound familiar? It does to me too, and we hear it often, but you may not realise that snoring often precedes several serious health conditions.

Businessman Brainstorming About Retirement Planning

Snoring might not strike you as grounds for a lifetime pay increase at retirement but heavy snoring could in some cases boost income by up to 24%. Heavy snoring can be a sign someone suffers from a condition called sleep apnoea or OSA and sufferers don’t just snore; they also stop breathing for short periods during sleep, which can have serious health implications.

According to Hargreaves Lansdowne, one of the UK’s leading pension advisers, some enhanced annuity providers are willing to pay a higher annuity income to someone with sleep apnoea. In their research, a man aged 65 could boost his pension annuity by up to £586 a year, by declaring his sleep apnoea together with just his height, weight and other personal details. This means more income for life – in other words a lifetime pay rise.

A better result however is to stop snoring through the use of a simple and inexpensive oral appliance – and as a consequence to live much longer. They are NHS Approved and recommended and don’t need a prescription or even for you to make a trip to your GP – they are available online.

The most important thing to understand is that snoring is a symptom. It is not normal, and it’s got very specific causes. There are many causes, including a weak jaw, congestion, excessive fat in the throat, weakness of the neck muscles and above all being overweight which is hard to avoid as we age.

Among the most common and most dangerous causes of snoring is Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA). It is seen most frequently in middle-aged men with heavy-set necks and shoulders, although anyone can have it and It occurs when the tongue and soft palate relax enough to make contact with the back of the throat, restricting airflow or stopping it completely.

And that’s the worrying part because sometimes OSA causes breathing to stop completely, which, if untreated, can cause major health problems.

When OSA causes breathing to stop, it’s called an ‘apneic event’ and this exerts stress on the heart, and the cumulative effect of lots of these events increases the risk of heart conditions. For instance, OSA patients are 30% more likely to have a heart attack and have greater risk of congestive heart failure due to pulmonary pressure build-up in the right side of the heart.

Hypertension

OSA is one cause of high blood pressure and when breathing stops during sleep, both systolic and diastolic blood pressure spike, which keeps blood pressure elevated throughout the night. This causes a very dangerous form of hypertension. Most people who suffer from hypertension get a bit of relief at night because their blood pressure falls whereas chronic snorers often experience high blood pressure for the entire 24 hours of the day.

Stroke

In men, OSA can increase the risk of stroke by almost 300%. But more importantly, this isn’t just seen in all the severe cases as you can be at greater risk even if you have moderate sleep apnea.

The Real Danger

The real danger of snoring is that obstructive Sleep Apnea often goes completely undiagnosed, so many people don’t know they’re at risk.
This is because the symptoms of OSA occur during sleep, and lots of people, especially those who don’t share a bed with anyone else, don’t even know they snore. Further, people tend to view snoring as something amusing. So, if you’re not sure if you snore, here are a few other symptoms to watch out for:

  • Excessive fatigue during the day
  • Restless sleep
  • Headaches in the morning
  • Being confused in the morning
  • Heart burn
  • Sore or dry throat

All in all, snoring seems harmless but it interfere with your overall health. The good news is that snoring can easily be stopped, and OSA can be treated successfully, easily, and inexpensively, by using a simple oral appliance.

 

John Redfern